Prevalence and Comorbidities of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Study of the Method of the Developmental Health Checkup in a Japanese Community-Based Population Sample of Five-Year-Old Children

Friday, May 12, 2017: 12:00 PM-1:40 PM
Golden Gate Ballroom (Marriott Marquis Hotel)
Y. Sakamoto1, M. Saito1, S. Yoshida2, M. Adachi3, N. Takayanagi3, S. Yasuda4, M. Kuribayashi5 and K. Nakamura6, (1)Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan, (2)Research Centre for Child Mental Developmenta Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, JAPAN, (3)Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, JAPAN, (4)Research Center for Child Mental Development Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, JAPAN, (5)Hirosaki University Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hirosaki, Aomori, JAPAN, (6)Hirosaki University, Aomori-Ken, JAPAN
Background: In Japan, local governments perform pregnant women and infants’ health check-up as a fundamental maternal-and-child-health service. However, it cannot completely pick up developmental disabilities, especially ASD at 18 months and 36 months old. Therefore, we have conducted five-year-olds developmental health check-up since 2013, and directly diagnosed developmental disorders using DSM-5. It allows investigating the prevalence of developmental disorders, and proposing early identification and intervention.

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and Comorbidities of ASD in a community-based population sample of five-year-old children. We also clarify the difference of clinical data between children with ASD or other developmental disorders and healthy controls.

Methods: This study was conducted as Hirosaki Five years check-up (HFC) study-assessing mental health among children in Hirosaki. Subjects are 3804 children who become 5 years old between April 2013 and March 2016 in Hirosaki city. 2923 children responded to the first screening (parents and teacher filled out ASSQ, SDQ, ADHD-RS, DCDQ, PSI-C). 607 children were above the cutoff point of the screenings. Finally, 440 children and their parents visited to the developmental health check-up including 31 applicants. Pediatricians and psychiatrists diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder directly using DSM-5 criteria (ASD, ADHD, ID/BI) and EACD criteria (DCD), in addition, psychologists and Occupational therapists evaluated not only ASD symptoms but also cognitive and motor function using WISC-4, MABC-2, SCQ, AQ, PARS-TR short version. We estimated the rate of prevalence and comorbidities. In addition, we verified the availability of the screening and assessment tools.

Results: The prevalence rate of ASD was estimated at 3.20%. The comorbidities of ASD were ADHD (60.0%), DCD (61.1%) and ID/BI (40.0%). In the logistic regression analysis, the primary screenings which are combination of parent-ASSQ, ADHD-RS, PSI-C and teacher’s SDQ showed 96.9% prediction diagnostic rate (R2=.559). Similarly, the secondary assessment tools which are combination of MABC Total, AQ Total and PARS-TR short-version showed 86.2% prediction diagnostic rate (R2=.479).

Conclusions: This is the first epidemiological study of a community-based population sample in Japan. These findings suggest that ASD children have plural comorbidities, in other words, ASD children suffer from severe disabilities than other disorders. ASSQ, ADHD-RS, PSI-C, SDQ is useful for screening and MABC-2, AQ, PARS-TR is available for diagnosis of 5-year-old ASD children.

See more of: Epidemiology
See more of: Epidemiology